Islam by topic: Cosmology

by Matt Slick

Cosmology is the study of the universe, solar systems, Earth, etc. Islamic cosmology is laid out in the Quran and the hadith. In those two sources we discover that Islam teaches there are seven heavens, seven earths, that the earth is flat, and that it sits on a whale. Instead of reflecting an objective and accurate set of truths revealed by the God of the universe, Islamic cosmology reflects the superstitions of the time and demonstrates that Muhammad would not inspired.

  1. Seven Heavens, one on top of another
    1. Surah 23:86, "Say: “Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Throne (of Glory) Supreme?”
    2. Surah 67:3, "He Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?"
    3. Surah 71:15, "See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another." 
  2. Seven heavens are visible from earth
    1. Surah 67:3, "He Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?"
    2. Surah 71:15, "See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another."
  3. Seven earths
    1. Surah 65:12, "Allah is He Who created seven Firmaments and of the earth a similar number. Through the midst of them (all) descends His Command: that ye may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah comprehends, all things in (His) Knowledge."
  4. Earth created in two days
    1. Surah 41:9, "Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds."
  5. Earth is flat
    1. Surah 20:53, "He Who has, made for you the earth like a carpet spread out; has enabled you to go about therein by roads (and channels); and has sent down water from the sky.” With it have We produced diverse pairs of plants each separate from the others.
    2. Surah 71:19, "‘And Allah has made the earth for you as a carpet (spread out)."
      1. Note:  "As for His words sutihat, ‘laid out flat’, this on a literal reading suggests that the earth is flat, which is the opinion of most of the scholars of the [revealed] Law, and not a sphere as astronomers (ahl al-hay’a) have it, even if this [latter] does not contradict any of the pillars of the Law." (http://www.4truth.net/fourtruthpbworld.aspx?pageid=8589953039)
  6. Earth sits on a whale
    1. "Muhammad reported from Ahmad, from ibn Mahbub, from Jamil ibn Salih, from Aban ibn Taghlib, from Abu Abd Allah (upon whom be peace), who said, I asked him about the earth: Upon which does it stand forth? To which he replied: It stands forth upon a whale. I asked: Upon which does the whale stand forth? To which he replied: Upon water. I asked: Upon which does water stand forth? To which he replied: Upon a rock. I asked: Upon which does the rock stand forth? To which he replied: Upon a bull’s smooth horn. I asked: Upon which does the bull stand forth? To which he replied: Upon the ground. I asked: Upon which does the ground stand forth? To which he replied: What an idea? Therewith is lost the knowledge of the men of knowledge." (http://gift2shias.com/2012/04/17/national-shia-geographic/)
    2. "And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (Nun): '(Nun) He says: Allah swears by the Nun, which is the whale that carries the earths on its back while in Water, and beneath which is the Bull and under the Bull is the Rock and under the Rock is the Dust and none knows what is under the Dust save Allah. The name of the whale is Liwash, and it is said its name is Lutiaya'; the name of the bull is Bahamut, and some say its name is Talhut or Liyona. The whale is in a sea called 'Adwad, and it is like a small bull in a huge sea. The sea is in a hollowed rock whereby there is 4,000 cracks, and from each crack water springs out to the earth. It is also said that Nun is one of the names of the Lord; it stands for the letter Nun in Allah's name al-Rahman (the Beneficent); and it is also said that a Nun is an inkwell. (By the pen) Allah swore by the pen. This pen is made of light and its height is equal to the distance between Heaven and earth. It is with this pen that the Wise Remembrance, i.e. the Guarded Tablet, was written. It is also said that the pen is one of the angels by whom Allah has sworn, (and that which they write (therewith)) and Allah also swore by what the angels write down of the works of the children of Adam." (http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0)
  7. Falling stars drive away evil spirits
    1. Surah 67:5, "And we have, (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with Lamps, and We have made such (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire."
  8. Heavens and earth created in six days
    1. Surah 10:3, "Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority), regulating and governing all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His leave (hath been obtained). This is Allah your Lord; Him therefore serve ye: will ye not receive admonition?"
    2. Surah 11:7, "He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days—and His Throne was over the waters—that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct. But if thou wert to say to them, “Ye shall indeed be raised up after death,” the Unbelievers would be sure to say, “This is nothing but obvious sorcery!”
  9. Lower heaven is the stars that guard agaisnt evil spirits
    1. Surah 37:6-7, "We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars 7 (For beauty) and for guard against all obstinate rebellious evil spirits."
  10. Space is vaste
    1. Surah 51:47, "With power and skill did We construct the Firmament: for it is We Who create the vastness of pace."
  11. Big Bang?
    1. Surah 21:30, Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?
  12. Structure of our world, firmament, seven heavens, seven earths
    1. Al-Hasan narrated that: Abu Hurairah said: “Once when the Prophet of Allah was sitting with his Companions, a cloud came above them, so the Prophet of Allah said: ‘Do you know what this is?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘These are the clouds that are to drench the earth, which Allah [Blessed and Most High] dispatches to people who are not grateful to Him, nor supplicate to Him.’ Then he said: ‘Do you know what is above you?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘Indeed it is a preserved canopy of the firmament whose surge is restrained.’ Then he said: ‘Do you know how much is between you and between it?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘Between you and it [is the distance] of five-hundred year.’ Then he said: ‘Do you know what is above that.’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘Verily, above that are two Heavens, between the two of them there is a distance of five-hundred years’ – until he enumerated seven Heavens – ‘What is between each of the two Heavens is what is between the heavens and the earth.’ Then he said: ‘Do you know what is above that?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘Verily, above that is the Throne between it and the heavens is a distance [like] what is between two of the heavens.’ Then he said: ‘Do you know what is under you?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘Indeed it is the earth.’ Then he said: ‘Do you know what is under that?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger know better.’ He said: ‘Verily, below it is another earth, between the two of which is a distance of five-hundred years.’ Until he enumerated seven earths: ‘Between every two earths is a distance of five-hundred years.’ Then he said: ‘By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad! If you were to send [a man] down with a rope to the lowest earth, then he would descend upon Allah.’ Then he recited: He is Al-Awwal, Al-Akhir, Az-Zahir Al-Batin, and He has knowledge over all things.”(Jami` at-Tirmidhi Book 44 Hadith 3298
    2. , https://muflihun.com/tirmidhi/44/3298)
  13. Universe was smoke ('as' is not in the arabic. It is added in)
    1. Surah 41:11, "Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: “Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly.” They said: “We do come (together), in willing obedience."
 
 

About The Author

Matt Slick is the President and Founder of the Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry.